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Click on a blue hyperlink of interest. See also Glossary of electoral terms.


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Accredited PR Vote-counting Officers, and Endorsed PR Vote-counting Software Operators

Advances and Setbacks in Australia's electoral systems, and the side of politics instigating them

Alternative vote is a synonym for a preferential vote in a single-vacancy poll – in the failed 2011 UK electoral referendum it was proposed that marking of preferences should be fully optional, as for the NSW Legislative Assembly


Anglican Synods’ Electoral Systems


AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY proportional representation history at State and municipal level

Australian Conservation Foundation Council poll results

Australians for Constitutional Monarchy's acknowledgement of the Senate electoral system's history




Ballot-paper specimens, for quota-preferential PR polls, with a choice of 3 different formality rules


Below-the-line voting, except for Victoria’s Upper House, is unfairly burdensome to voters. See a website that makes it easier.


Bibliography of publications relating to proportional representation, some with hyperlinks to the publication




Campaign by NSW Senator Helen Coonan in 1998-99 to discriminate against independent and minor party voters at Senate elections


CANADA proportional representation history at National and Provincial level

Casual vacancies filled by party appointment where direct election by countback has not yet replaced that


Casual vacancies in positions that were filled using PR are best filled by countback or a further count


Categories of Voting Systems


Cleese video urging quota-preferential (STV) proportional representation for the UK House of Commons: or our higher quality DVD


Clients that have used the PRSAV-T Inc. vote-counting service

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA proportional representation history at National level – See also the Sub-index for the sections of this item.


Constitutions of the PRSA, and of its New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia and
Victoria-Tasmania branches


Constraints are not necessary or advisable in proportional representation elections


Contact details for PRSA National Officers and Branches


Countback, for filling casual vacancies in multi-member electoral districts that use quota-preferential proportional representation


Countback in 2007 by-election in Whitehorse City in Victoria, properly electing candidate with 2.7% of first preference votes at the 2005 General Election



D Democratic Representation under the Hare-Clark System - The Need for Seven-member Electorates:
1958 Report to the Tasmanian Parliament by Dr George Howatt

Direct election of candidates is important

District magnitude, which is the number of representatives elected for an electoral district.

Donkey voting is effectively counteracted using Robson Rotation, which applies for polls for both houses of
Tasmania's Parliament, for all of Tasmania's municipal councils, and for the ACT Legislative Assembly.

Droop quota or Hare quota - why the Droop quota has superseded the Hare quota.




Election Night Special is a 5-minute video on YouTube of a 1970 sketch by Monty Python’s Flying Circus. See also the transcript and commentary on it, which revealingly shows how the non-transferable votes in the UK’s first-past-the-post electoral system can let frivolous or nonsensical candidates with hardly any votes significantly and unreasonably affect the electoral fate of more substantial candidates.

Election results in Australia and other countries on the Psephos website


Electoral Commissions and Parliaments in Australia


Electoral Matters Committee of Parliament of Victoria: PRSAV-T Inc. 2007 written submission and oral evidence

Electoral Representation Review submissions on municipal reviews to the Victorian Electoral Commission made by PRSAV-T Inc. up to 2008, and in 2019


Electoral systems in Australia as summarized on the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade website.

Electoral systems in Australia that applied in the various States for the first federal election in 1901

Electoral systems in the world

Entrenchment of electoral provisions in the Federal, State and Territory constitutions


Everybody Counts: A 17-page A5 booklet with a straightforward explanation of the Hare-Clark electoral system, by Neil Robson




First-past-the-post (Plurality) electoral systems have fatal flaws.


First preference votes in quota-preferential PR systems are important, but are not the only votes that can form a quota. Large surpluses can lead to candidates receiving surplus transfers being elected without receiving any first preference votes at all.

Freedom of information success in the 2000 appeal to VCAT by Anthony van der Craats, a PRSAV-T Inc. Life Member, to have Melbourne City Council provide him with preference data from an election




“Gerrymander Wheel” - PRSA’s small physical model gives a simple, convincing demonstration of how even the impartial placing of the boundaries of single-member electoral districts can drastically affect the electoral outcome, without a single vote changing. Australia's boundary placing, unlike the partisan placing in the USA, is not undertaken directly by governments.

Glossary of electoral terminology


Gregory Fractional Transfers of surplus votes: The Original, Unweighted Inclusive, and Weighted Inclusive


Group Voting Tickets in elections for the Senate, all mainland State upper houses, and municipal elections in all the NSW municipalities that use PR, and for the City of Melbourne in Victoria


Guest speakers at Annual General Meetings of Proportional Representation Society of Australia (Victoria-Tasmania) Inc. since 1979



H Hansard references in Australian parliaments to the Proportional Representation Society of Australia

Hare-Clark electoral system used in Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory

Hare quota or Droop quota - why the Droop quota has superseded the Hare quota.


History of the PRSA and its purposes


Honorary Life Members of the Proportional Representation Society of Australia


‘How-to-vote’ cards used in Australian elections



I Instigators of Australian Electoral System Advances and Setbacks 


Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters: PRSAV-T Inc. 2006 written submission & oral evidence to Inquiry into Civics & Electoral Education








Life Members of the Proportional Representation Society of Australia


Links to other sites


MALTA proportional representation history at National level


Meek system of counting for quota-preferential (single transferable vote in multi-member electorates) polls


Membership details and application forms for the various Branches of the PRSA


Municipal electoral systems in Australia

Model rules for electing a committee & filling casual vacancies: See Rules 22 & 23 of the PRSAV-T Inc.




National Officers since PRSA’s inception


Newsletters of the PRSA, Quota Notes


New South Wales 2011 elections: Preference data files are accessible at  The file size is up to 650 MB.


NEW SOUTH WALES proportional representation history at State and municipal level


NEW ZEALAND proportional representation history at State and municipal level


NORFOLK ISLAND proportional representation history at Territory level


NORTHERN TERRITORY proportional representation at Territory level




Odd number of positions to be filled, rather than an even number, is always recommended for use in a proportional representation election

Officers of the PRSA since its inception


Order in which candidates’ names appear on ballot-papers has important effects.

Organizations that specify their electoral system in their Constitution or subsidiary rules




Parity among wards in municipal electoral systems

Parliamentary electoral systems in Australia


Parliaments and Electoral Commissions in Australia


Party List systems of PR are inferior to quota-preferential systems of PR


Party List systems have been initiated or introduced for 4 different Australian legislatures, but each was replaced by a quota-preferential PR system.


Plurality (First-past-the-post) electoral systems have fatal flaws.

Pork barrelling is a serious abuse found in single-member electoral systems, but far less in Hare-Clark

Preferential voting systems are superior to non-preferential voting systems


Proportional Representation analyses of various Federal and State elections


Proportional Representation definition


PRSA Rules for counting quota-preferential proportional representation elections

PRSAV-T Inc. Council page


Publications for sale




QUEENSLAND proportional representation history at State and municipal level


Quota definition: The definition is of the Droop quota, which is the quota used in modern quota-preferential systems rather than the earlier Hare quota.



Ranking of candidates elected at a quota-preferential (STV) poll, in an order of priority after their election

Referendums, at which voters have been asked to choose between proportional representation systems and others, have succeeded in introducing PR systems.


Regimentation of voters by legislative provisions, such as those for Senate ballot-papers, that allow parties to determine the order of candidates' names


Regulations made by the Proportional Representation Society of Australia


Regulations made by PRSA Branches


Representation of voters relates to whom they freely choose - and not to whether the candidates they choose necessarily resemble them in some aspect - so an electoral structure to engineer their representation by somebody like them can distort voters’ wishes.



Robson, the late Hon. Neil, AM


Robson Rotation






SOUTH AUSTRALIA proportional representation history at State and municipal level


“Schoolboy election” example by Thomas Hill in 1820 shows how quota-preferential PR works where a secret ballot is not used


Speakers from PRSAV-T Inc. will, at no charge, address Melbourne area meetings on proportional representation aspects of interest


Stage management of elections, which began well before the above-the-line and below-the-line device was introduced for Senate ballot papers, and includes 'affirmative action' limits in preselections




“Tablecloth” ballot-paper (1010 x 720 mm) used in the 1996 New South Wales Legislative Council election

Talks by election commentators to PRSAV-T Inc. members

TASMANIA proportional representation history at State and municipal level


Tasmanian state election reports beginning from 1909 – an excellent resource also available on the Tasmanian Electoral Commission website


Topical matters

Transferable vote systems are superior to non-transferable vote systems




UNITED KINGDOM proportional representation history at National and municipal level


UNITED STATES OF AMERICA proportional representation history at National, State and municipal level






VICTORIA proportional representation history at State and municipal level


Victoria-Tasmania Branch present and former Honorary Life Members and guest speakers at its previous Annual General Meetings


Vote-counting Service for clubs, incorporated associations etc.

"Voting - by party direction or by free choice?" 11979 Report to Tasmanian Parliament by Dr George Howatt






WESTERN AUSTRALIA proportional representation history at State and municipal level


Winner-take-all electoral systems








“Your Vote – Effective or Wasted?” – A small, free booklet that compares, with illustrative diagrams, the counting methods used for the major single-vacancy and multiple-vacancy elections that Australia has used for public elections.